Nonetheless, in these later articles the tendency is to criticize or revise Braudel’s arguments. However, one historical study of space in Past and Present focuses on the spaces that lie behind closed doors. Despite the creation of other maps by other scholars, her map has been widely reproduced (without her caveat) in popular magazines, scholarly studies and western civilization textbooks.98 The only scholar who took issue with Carpentier’s map was František Graus, who in 1963 objected to the ‘exceptional regions’ of southern Poland and Bohemia.99 Graus ‘crammed the footnotes of his dense, five-page article with fourteenth-century evidence of plague in the Bohemian kingdom’, arguing that, while the first appearance of the plague in Bohemia was light, there was a second, much more destructive phase.100 Graus situated the plague within a variety of other pestilences, emphasizing the feudal crisis as ‘a category into which a devastating epidemic fitted badly’. For it is precisely the fixation on the European conquest as the ultimate source of historical explanations of the present that lies at the base of the binary construct which has denied historicity to Andean peoples, while conceiving of them as ‘remnants’, vestiges, unevolved and, ultimately, ‘ethnic’.73. This is how geographers identify the parameters of regions within a greater area of space. Cultural geography is the study of how the environment affects humans and vice versa. As a result of this alleged deception, they had participated in the rebellion; the government’s consequent repression had left them devastated and unable to pay the tribute. The activity space approach proposed in this paper has great potential to be applied to these new data sources. Geographic space is composed of natural elements such as vegetation, soil, mountains and bodies of water, as well as social or cultural elements, that is, the economic and social organization of people and their values and customs. We found that tweet locations at different levels of scale, such as country and city, can be well predicted by the underlying living structure. 131 (May 1991), 130. Term. 199 (May 2008), 150. Cognitive Mapping. Search for other works by this author on: © The Past and Present Society, Oxford, 2016, This article is published and distributed under the terms of the Oxford University Press, Standard Journals Publication Model (, The Animal Body As Medium: Taxidermy And European Expansion, 1775–1865, A Different Story in the Anthropocene: Brazil’s Post-Colonial Quest for Oil (1930–1975), The Human, The Animal and the Prehistory of COVID-19, http://web.stanford.edu/group/spatialhistory/cgi-bin/site/index.php, https://web.stanford.edu/group/spatialhistory/cgi-bin/site/pub.php?id=29, https://academic.oup.com/journals/pages/about_us/legal/notices, Receive exclusive offers and updates from Oxford Academic, Copyright © 2020 Past and Present Society. Society, Action and Space: An Alternative Human Geography Benno Werlen No preview available - 1993. I am grateful to each of these people and institutions. In future versions, Waldseemüller did not use the name ‘America’; yet, where Waldseemüller desisted, other cartographers continued to employ it in maps and books. While this tendency reflects practical intra-disciplinary divisions (as in divisions of departments and research areas into broad geographic regions within which figure our national specializations), it also reveals a tacit agreement that national borders delimit bounded spaces within which social and economic practices unravel. London: SAGE. An article by Robin Okey entitled ‘Central Europe/Eastern Europe: Behind the Definitions’ examines the idea of ‘central Europe’, or Mitteleuropa, highlighting its borders as arbitrary. Carpentier presented the map tentatively, warning that it was incomplete and would require further study. It emphasizes that spatial history can serve as methodology, approach and object. The scale shifted through this approach is not just geographic, nor merely epistemological; it is methodological, as Barraclough and Melillo urge us to slide the scale of historical inquiry. 5 (Nov. 1954). The historical region of central Europe, then, is ‘characterized by its fragmentation’.59 In terms of self-perception, Okey finds that this historical region was born of ‘a sense of grievance, of European destiny denied and merit unperceived’.60 In sum, absolute space provides the context within which social processes unfolded, leading to a region defined not by culture, politics or economics, but by geography, fragmentation and a sense of grievance. 127 (May 1990). Equipped with curiosity and their five senses, young children explore and manipulate materials in their environment to understand the world around them. Mapping the Black Death’, Past and Present, no. One example would be a television station's viewing area. In contrast, in ‘The Power of Naming, or The Construction of Ethnic and National Identities in Peru: Myth, History and the Iquichanos’, Cecilia Méndez-Gastelumendi demonstrates that a term used at times to describe a place and at others a people has no stable meaning.61 Initially, Méndez-Gastelumendi had set out to study the ‘Iquichano Rebellion’, which took place from 1826 to 1828 in the south central Andes, waged by a multi-class group opposed to the newly formed republic of Peru.62 She, like other scholars, government groups, anthropologists and novelists, had accepted the ‘Iquichanos’ as ‘a hereditary “ethnic group” of the “Chanka Confederation” ’, a pre-Hispanic people who had resisted Inca expansion.63 However, exhaustive archival research in government documents, reports, maps, missionary diaries, lawsuits, land disputes and tributary records of the province of Huanta returned no mention of ‘Iquicha’ or its resident ‘Iquichanos’.64 Instead, Méndez-Gastelumendi found the first written use of the term ‘Iquichano’ during the 1826–8 uprising.65 Further, she found that ‘Iquicha’ did not appear as an official (or unofficial) town, community or region in these documents.66 Instead, within the documents, ‘Iquichanos’ were all peasants who opposed the republic. Thrift, N (1996) Spatial Formations. See also David Harvey, The Condition of Postmodernity: An Enquiry into the Origins of Cultural Change (Oxford, 1990). Stone outlines ‘the crisis of self-confidence’ into which history was thrown by the postmodern ‘threat’ posed by what he identifies as ‘linguistics’ (Saussure and Derrida), ‘symbolic anthropology’ (Clifford Geertz, Victor Turner and Mary Douglas) and ‘New Historicism’.17 He feels that the discipline of history — which, his note informs, is rooted in truths that lie outside the text — is at stake, and recommends an article by Gabrielle M. Speigel offering a ‘way out of the ever-narrowing trap in which we historians find ourselves’.18 Stone’s appraisal received immediate response from Patrick Joyce and Catriona Kelly.19 In his response, Joyce recognizes the postmodern conundrum for historical inquiry: if the ‘real’ only exists as transmitted to us discursively, then historians have no access to the ‘true’ past, but only have access to discursive representations of it. It clearly lays out the course content and describes the exam and AP Program in general. ), The Spatial Turn: Interdisciplinary Perspectives (London, 2009), 1. What I do in geography is not space meaning ‘outer space’, or space meaning ‘atomic space’, or any of that; it is space as that dimension of the world in which we live. Human geography is one of the two major branches of geography, together with physical geography.Human geography is also called cultural geography. Meanwhile, ‘Munster and Dublin bore the brunt of the revolution at every stage’.87 After presenting this quantitative data, Hart contributes qualitative analysis, examining the reasons that different groups gave for the uneven distribution of violence. Defining Concept of Space and Social Space and Significance of Space in Geography. [Benno Werlen] Further, the linguistic turn and postmodernism opened the door to innovative articles that examine or employ space, place and scale. Geography as a discipline can be split broadly into two main subsidiary fields: human geography and physical geography. Activity space in human geography is the location where regular behaviors occur. Maddykinns. Environment and Planning D: Society and Space 1(1): 23 – 57. Spatial social history, in this sense, owes its existence to this kind of debate. PHILOSOPHY & GEOGRAPHY, VOL. Examples: Neighborhood – Urban Area – Metropolitan Area – Region – Nation – World. Felix Driver, ‘Henry Morton Stanley and his Critics: Geography, Exploration and Empire’, Past and Present, no. 155 (May 1997). Important within spatial history are the concepts of ‘place’ (that is, physical spaces that people naturalize through patterns, behaviour and communications) and ‘scale’ (the representation of any area, as produced and defined by social process, from the smallest unit, the body, to the largest, the universe).2 This article presents how authors within Past and Present have studied space, place and scale. Some geographers, Okey states, suggest that the murkiness of regional definition points to ‘arbitrary’ bonds, and others suggest that the region is a ‘concept of political will’. Cyclic movement deals with human mobility. Through his analysis, he is able to show that ‘the Cork IRA emerges as the strongest overall, chiefly in virtue of its consistency’, while the rate of violence in other cities and counties shifts over time. Cecilia Méndez-Gastelumendi, ‘The Power of Naming, or The Construction of Ethnic and National Identities in Peru: Myth, History and the Iquichanos’, Past and Present, no. Spatial distribution refers to the set of geographic observations depicting the importance of the behavior of an extraordinary phenomenon or characteristic across different locations on the earth's surface. the space within which daily activity occurs. As Phil Hubbard states in his article ‘Space/Place’, ‘the key question about space and place is not what they are, but what they do’.3, Historiographical studies of human geography outline a disjointed narrative: geography emerged in the early nineteenth century, characterized by environmental determinism and historicism.4 It became an arm of European imperialism, and fell into a crisis of disciplinary definition until the publication of Richard Hartshorne’s ‘Nature of Geography’ in 1939.5 Hartshorne urged geographers to focus on spatial distributions rather than time. 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