However, in Bangladesh, which occupies the Ganges Delta, the advantages provided by the richness of the alluvial soil of the floodplain are severely offset by frequent floods brought on by cyclones and annual monsoon rains. The worst of these, and the worst natural disaster (excluding famine and epidemics) were the 1931 China floods, estimated to have killed millions. Levees are typically build up enough to be relatively well-drained compared with nearby wetlands, and levees in non-arid climates are often heavily vegetated. Is dominant to accumulation over space and time when the glacier enters warmer conditions. Excluding famines and epidemics, some of the worst natural disasters in history[15] (measured by fatalities) have been river floods, particularly in the Yellow River in China – see list of deadliest floods. Example: Nile river for irrigation? Mid-channel bars in braided rivers migrate downstream through processes resembling those in point bars of meandering rivers and can build up a floodplain. Erosion on the outside of the meander usually closely balances deposition on the inside of the meander, so that the channel shifts in the direction of the meander without changing significantly in width. large-scale immigration by talented people. [3], Wherever the river meanders, the flowing water erodes the river bank on the outside of the meander, while sediments are simultaneously deposited in a point bar on the inside of the meander. Floods usually occur when precipitation falls more quickly than that water … A number of whole towns such as English, Indiana, have been completely relocated to remove them from the floodplain. Advanced Placement Human Geography (also known as AP Human Geo, AP Geography, APHG, AP HuGe, AP HuG, AP Human, or HGAP) is an Advanced Placement social studies course that studies human geography.The test is administered by College Board.. Groundwater is a valuable resource both in the United States and throughout the world. Learn vocabulary, terms, and more with flashcards, games, and other study tools. Put most simply, a flood is an overflow of water in one place. Plants slow down water as it runs over the land, giving it time to enter the ground. ———Floodplain Natural Resources and Functions——— 8-2 The natural and cultural values associated with floodplain resources can be categorized in a variety of ways. migrant has been compelled to move by cultural factors. Opportunistic feeders (particularly birds) move in to take advantage. Flooding as a source of nutrients was important to Egyptians along the Nile River until the Aswan Dam was built in the 1960s. These sediments provide habitats for animals, and the periodic movement of sediment is crucial to the lives of several types of organisms. In the United States the Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) manages the National Flood Insurance Program (NFIP). People who have been forced to migrate from their homes and cannot return for fear of persecution because of their race, religion, nationality, membership in a social group, or political opinion. Floods are a natural part of the water cycle, but they can be terrifying forces of destruction. 8. Floods are also responsible for moving large amounts of sediments about within streams. — Wikipedia Here are a couple of additional definitions from disciplinary reference books. In undisturbed river systems, overbank flow is a frequent occurrence, typically occurring every one to two years regardless of climate or topography. "Natural increase" is a term used in economics, geography, sociology and population studies. When a dam breaks along a reservoir, flooding can be catastrophic. Definition. The presence of mass-scale swine and poultry lots and processing plants in a sandy floodplain – a region once dotted by small tobacco farms – has long posed a difficult dilemma for a state where swine and poultry represent billions of dollars a year for the economy. [11], The quantity of sediments in a floodplain greatly exceed the river load of sediments. An example includes rivers becoming deeper by sediment being eroded away from the bottom surface. High water levels have also caused small dams to break, wreaking havoc downstream. Wetting of the floodplain soil releases an immediate surge of nutrients: those left over from the last flood, and those that result from the rapid decomposition of organic matter that has accumulated since then. The soils usually consist of … The rate at which the channel shifts varies greatly, with reported rates ranging from too slow to measure to as much as 2,400 feet (730 m) per year for the Kosi River of India. Floods in the Human Existence Creation Myths A. A floodplain, or flood plain, is flat or nearly flat land adjacent to a stream or river that experiences occasional flooding. Perhaps unsurprisingly, floods tend to affect low-lying areas most severely. Rivers deposit new nutrient-rich sediments when they flood and so floodplains have traditionally been good for farming. At much longer intervals, the river may completely abandon the channel belt and begin building a new channel belt at another position on the floodplain. Definition: The area subject to flooding during a given number of years according to historical trends. A floodplain consists of two parts. The NFIP offers insurance to properties located within a flood prone area, as defined by the Flood Insurance Rate Map (FIRM), which depicts various flood risks for a community. a riverbed, basin, watershed, or floodplain, by means of erosion. The floodplain is the area that a river floods onto when it exceeds bank-full capacity. River flow rates are undergoing change following suit with climate change. This process is called avulsion, and takes place at intervals of 10-1000 years. This makes floodplains particularly valuable for agriculture. This site provides information about the Geography Network, available content services, and service accessibility. The FIRM typically focuses on delineation of the 100-year flood inundation area, also known within the NFIP as the Special Flood Hazard Area. 2009. This is described as vertical accretion, since the deposits build the floodplain upwards. River Findhorn in flood near Randolph's Leap. Floods can occur for a variety of reasons, and their effects can be minimized in several different ways. "100-year floodplain" expect flooding every century. When there is an outflow of water in a place, it is said to be flooded. This is described as lateral accretion, since the deposition builds the point bar laterally into the river channel. A levee in one location may just force the high water up or downstream and cause flooding there. Floodplain. In some floodplains, such as the Inner Niger Delta of Mali, annual flooding events are a natural part of the local ecology and rural economy, allowing for the raising of crops through recessional agriculture. Most of the suspended sand is deposited on the levees, leaving the silt and clay sediments to be deposited as floodplain muds furthe from the river. Degradation in geography and geology is the process of the lowering of a fluvial surface, i.e. Floods can occur for a variety of reasons, and their effects can be minimized in several different ways. Microscopic organisms thrive and larger species enter a rapid breeding cycle. Migration of people to a specific location because relatives or members of the same nationality previously migrated there ... Floodplain: Definition. Thus, floodplains are an important storage site for sediments during their transport from where they are generated to their ultimate depositional environment. What is an example of a floodplain?. [10], Floodplains can form around rivers of any kind or size. The deposited load on the floodplain is known as alluvium. The flood may take different forms such as in the … It stretches from the bank s of the river to the outer edges of the valley. Users will begin exploration of the Geography Network by visiting the Geography Network portal (Web site) at www.GeographyNetwork.com. 1. adds to available low-wage labor pool 2. competition with locals for limited jobs 3. additional cost on receiving country to provide services (e.g., housing, food, education, Put most simply, a flood is an overflow of water in one place. Identifying Land Use/Land Cover (LULC) Using, This page was last edited on 30 November 2020, at 17:28. A floodplain or flood plain or flood-plain is an area of land adjacent to a stream or river which stretches from the banks of its channel to the base of the enclosing valley walls, and which experiences flooding during periods of high discharge.
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