Currently, a website provides water quality reports twice a week, indicating whether various portions of the river are safe for swimming, boating and fishing.[73][74]. THE RIVER SYSTEM For the better part of the 20th century, the Connecticut River hydroelectric system has been one of the largest renewable energy systems in New England. In Northampton, Massachusetts, looting during the flood became a problem, causing the mayor of the city to deputize citizen patrols to protect flooded areas. The Connecticut River is the longest river in the New England region of the United States, flowing roughly southward for 406 miles (653 km) through four states. The high volume and numerous falls of the river led to the rise of industry along its banks during the Industrial Revolution. The Treaty of Paris (1783) that ended the American Revolutionary War created a new international border between New Hampshire and the Province of Canada at "northwesternmost headwaters of the Connecticut". Map – Dams Constructed in the Connecticut River Watershed. Re-licensing Offers Rare Opportunity for Connecticut River Dams. The Connecticut River… is home to Moose Falls, Beecher Falls, Fifteen Mile Falls (buried beneath Moore Reservoir), McIndoe Falls, Bellows Falls, Turners Falls, South Hadley Falls and the Enfield Rapids. The proliferation of the railroads in Springfield and Hartford greatly decreased the economic importance of the Connecticut River. The Bellows Falls Project, FERC No. The Great River Relay November 5, 2020. Norm Sims paddles one of his wood and canvas canoes on the Connecticut River. The Moore Station is the largest conventional hydroelectric plant in New England, in terms of installed capacity and average power … River in the New England region of the United States, River map, with major tributaries and selected dams, The Upper Connecticut River: New Hampshire and Vermont, The Middle Connecticut River: Massachusetts through central Connecticut, The Lower Connecticut River: Southern Connecticut to Long Island Sound, Meaning "landing place" or "place for unloading canoes. [50] In 2001, The Trust for Public Land purchased 171,000 acres (690 km2) of land in New Hampshire from International Paper, allowing the Connecticut Lakes Headwaters Partnership Task Force to plan the future protection of the land. The Connecticut River is named one of 14 American Heritage Rivers, and part of that reason is because of the species that live in the river (Connecticut River Watershed Council, 2015). Read more. Hello river neighbors, Towns along the Connecticut River have been losing land since the 40s! [26], The Fort at Number 4 in Charlestown, New Hampshire was the northernmost English settlement on the Connecticut River until the end of the French and Indian War in 1763. They pass an additional elevator in Turners Falls, Massachusetts and make it at least as far as Bellows Falls, Vermont. [52], Following the most recent ice age, the Middle Connecticut River Valley sat at the bottom of Lake Hitchcock. In response, the Massachusetts Bay Colony solidified its friendship with Springfield by levying a toll on Connecticut Colony ships entering Boston Harbor. The Point, a peninsula extending out into the Connecticut River, created coves on either side that provided sheltered waters to build and launch vessels. Abenaki Indians resisted British attempts at colonization, but Colonists began settling north of Brattleboro, Vermont following the war. Photo by Annie Ropeik for NHPR. [53] In the Middle Connecticut region, the river reaches its maximum depth – 130 feet (40 m) – at Gill, Massachusetts, around the French King Bridge, and its maximum width – 2,100 feet (640 m) – at Longmeadow, directly across from the Six Flags New England amusement park. [24] Shortly after Hooker's arrival, Newtowne annexed Matianuck based on laws articulated in Connecticut's settlement charter, the Warwick Patent of 1631. When the current granite dam was built in 1900, the river level again was raised a couple feet. Due to the presence of large, shifting sandbars at its mouth, the Connecticut is the only major river in the Northeastern United States without a port at its mouth.[56]. Landlocked salmon make their way into the river during spring spawning runs of bait fish and during their fall spawn. "[33], The Enfield Falls Canal was opened in 1829 to circumvent shallows around Enfield Falls, and the locks built for this canal gave their name to the town of Windsor Locks, Connecticut. The treaty allowed the Dutch to maintain their trading post at Fort Huys de Hoop, which they did until the 1664 British takeover of New Netherland. In addition to dams, warm water discharges between 1978 and 1992 from Vermont Yankee Nuclear Power Plant in Vernon, Vermont released water up to 105 °F (41 °C) degrees and the thermal plume reached 55 miles (89 km) downstream to Holyoke. [60] Additionally, the United States Fish and Wildlife Service has repopulated the river with another species of migratory fish, the Atlantic salmon, which for more than 200 years had been extinct from the river due to damming. For the Connecticut River at Great River Hydro's Wilder Dam, Wilder VT At 4:19 PM Today the total flow below the dam was 9,272 CFS. Tips & Resources; Be a River Witness; ... Deadbeat dams removed. Connecticut Dams: A list of all the Dams in Connecticut that begin with A with maps, driving directions and a local area search function. [7] Major tributaries include (from north to south) the Passumpsic, Ammonoosuc, White, Black, West, Ashuelot, Millers, Deerfield, Chicopee, Westfield, and Farmington rivers. That helps the state better adapt to climate change. The installed capacity of the Project is: 35,600 kW. The following forecast for flows below the dam is based on the most recent load forecast from the New England Independent System operator which schedules and dispatches generation throughout the region: CRC is a 501(c)(3) organization. [65][66][67], The mouth of the river up to Essex is thought to be one of the busiest stretches of waterway in Connecticut. North Walpole, New Hampshire, contained twelve to eighteen saloons, patronized by the log drivers. For decades, Springfield remained the Massachusetts Bay Colony's westernmost settlement, on the northern border of the Connecticut Colony. The current dam is the third structure to be built across the Great Falls at South Hadley. So far, fewer than 50 dams removed in Connecticut over the last 20 years, but that pace is accelerating. CRC will never share or sell your information. This map of the river and its major tributaries shows the location of the many dams built throughout the watershed over the centuries. Trees cut adjacent to tributary streams including Perry Stream and Indian Stream in Pittsburg, New Hampshire, Halls Stream on the Quebec–New Hampshire border, Simms Stream, the Mohawk River, and the Nulhegan River basin in Essex County, Vermont, would be flushed into the main river by the release of water impounded behind splash dams. Men guided logs through a 400-foot (120 m) drop along the length of Fifteen-Mile Falls[36] (now submerged under Moore and Comerford reservoirs), and through Logan's Rips at Fitzdale, Mulligan's Lower Pitch, and Seven Islands. [26] It was initially named Agawam Plantation and was allied with the settlements to the south that became the state of Connecticut, but it switched allegiances in 1641 and was renamed Springfield in honor of Pynchon's native town in England.[26]. These permits are decades long, and Urffer says they spell out exactly how the dams will operate. Teams of men would wait at Canaan, Vermont, to protect the bridges from log jams. The river is an important conduit of many anadromous fish, such as American shad, lamprey, and Atlantic salmon. June 10th, 2020 | Tags: Connecticut River, dam removal, dams, Environmental Advocacy, Rivers | Towns along the Connecticut River have been losing land since the 40s! [5] Lush green forests and agricultural hamlets dot this middle portion of the Connecticut River; however, the region is best known for its numerous college towns, such as Northampton, South Hadley, and Amherst, as well as the river's most populous city, Springfield. [7], The Connecticut River's flow is slowed by main stem dams, which create a series of slow-flowing basins from Lake Francis Dam in Pittsburg, New Hampshire, to the Holyoke Dam at South Hadley Falls in Massachusetts. The dam at Vernon, Vermont, was topped by 19 feet (5.8 m). In 1635, Reverend Thomas Hooker led settlers from Cambridge, Massachusetts, where he had feuded with Reverend John Cotton, to the site in Connecticut of the Dutch Fort House of Hope, where he founded Newtowne. Download a PDF of this … [14] The Mattabesset (Tunxis) tribe takes its name from the place where its sachems ruled at the Connecticut River's Big Bend at Middletown, in a village sandwiched between the territories of the aggressive Pequots to the south and the more peaceable Mohegans to the north. Across the northeast, over 430,000 people were made homeless or destitute by flooding that year. Two tail-water dams provide cold river water for miles downstream, making for bountiful summer fishing on the Connecticut. [31] Boundary disputes between Vermont and New Hampshire lasted for nearly 150 years and were finally settled in 1933, when the U.S. Supreme Court reaffirmed King George's boundary as the ordinary low-water mark on the Vermont shore. The Pocomtuc village of Agawam[17] eventually became Springfield, situated on the Bay Path where the Connecticut River meets the western Westfield River and eastern Chicopee River. Four separate Puritan-led groups also settled the fertile Connecticut River Valley, and they founded the two large cities that continue to dominate the Valley: Hartford (est. The ships refused to pay this tax without representation at Connecticut's fort, but Hartford refused to grant it. The Connecticut River carries a heavy amount of silt from as far north as Quebec, especially during the spring snow melt. River News. [32][49], The region along the river upstream and downstream from Lebanon, New Hampshire, and White River Junction, Vermont, is known as the "Upper Valley". https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_dams_and_reservoirs_in_Connecticut Connecticut Dams: A list of all the Dams in Connecticut that begin with A with maps, driving directions and a local area search function. [58] The Cabot and Turners Falls hydroelectric stations generate up to 68 MW.[59]. Every email contains the latest CT River info & links to quickly change your subscriptions or unsubscribe. In 1641, Springfield splintered off from the Hartford-based Connecticut Colony, allying itself with the Massachusetts Bay Colony. Below the Second lake Dam the river is a small stream and regulated as fly fishing only, the waters are home to Brook Trout and Landlocked Salmon and the fishing is best mid-spring and late fall. The Connecticut River watershed encompasses 11,260 square miles (29,200 km2), connecting 148 tributaries, including 38 major rivers and numerous lakes and ponds. Flood Control Dams. Bellows Falls Project. 15-Mile Falls Project Area. Pynchon surmised that traders using any of these routes would have to dock and change ships at his site, thereby granting the settlement a commercial advantage. The system comprises six hydroelectric stations and associated dams. Sandbagging by the National Guard and local volunteers helped prevent the dam's powerhouse from being overwhelmed, despite blocks of ice breaking through the upstream walls.[41]. The history of the Connecticut River can be told through dams. [15], The Mohegans dominated the region due north, where Hartford and its suburbs sit, particularly after allying themselves with the Colonists against the Pequots during the Pequot War of 1637. Appendix A - Large Dams of the … This map was prepared in 1996 by US Fish and Wildlife Service. [4] Its watershed encompasses 11,260 square miles (29,200 km2), covering parts of five U.S. states and one Canadian province, via 148 tributaries, 38 of which are major rivers. [35], Starting about 1865,[36] the river was used for massive logging drives from Third Connecticut Lake to initially water powered sawmills near Enfield Falls. Credit Britta Greene for NHPR Still, some groups want Great River Hydro to put money in a fund to mitigate the dams’ impacts. [11], Archaeological digs reveal human habitation of the Connecticut River Valley for 6,000 years before present. Fresh and brackish water residents of the main branch and tributaries include common carp, white catfish, brown bullhead, fallfish, yellow perch, smallmouth bass, largemouth bass, northern pike, chain pickerel, bluegill, pumpkinseed sunfish, golden shiner, and rock bass.[61]. Green River Crib Dam, in Guilford; Harriman Dam, Harriman Reservoir, TransCanada Corporation; Indian Brook Dam, Indian Brook Reservoir, town of Essex; McIndoes Falls Dam, McIndoes Reservoir, TransCanada; Moore Dam, Moore Reservoir, TransCanada Corporation (on New Hampshire border) North Hartland Dam, North Hartland Lake, USACE Now there are more than 1,000 dams in the basin. ANDY SCHAFERMEYER Facebook The Rainbow Dam, a 68-foot (21 m) dam with a hydroelectric generator and a fish ladder, dams the river at Windsor, a few miles before the river flows into the Connecticut River. Lake Francis was created in the 1940s to provide flood control. Over 3,000 refugees from the area were housed in Amherst College and the Massachusetts State Agricultural College (now UMass Amherst). Of these settlements, Hartford and Springfield quickly emerged as powers. [13], The Pequots dominated a territory in the southern region of the Connecticut River valley, stretching roughly from the river's mouth at Old Saybrook, Connecticut north to just below the Big Bend at Middletown. With this in mind, they founded Wethersfield, Connecticut in 1633, several miles south of the Dutch fort at Hartford. [69], Camping is available along much of the river, for non-motorized boats, via the Connecticut River Paddlers' Trail. The dam is located near Littleton, New Hampshire, and forms the 3,490-acre Moore Reservoir. Sign up for email updates about ways to enjoy our rivers. Several streams fit this description, and thus a boundary dispute led to the short-lived Indian Stream Republic, which existed from 1832 to 1835. One of those projects is the Ed Bills Pond Dam, on the eastern side of the Eight Mile River in Lyme. ", "Connecticut River Estuary and Tidal River Wetlands Complex", "Event: Source To Sea Cleanup To Benefit 410 Miles of Connecticut River — Courant.com – CT Environmental Headlines", "THEATER; The Industrialization of the Great River, New England's Longest", https://gallica.bnf.fr/ark:/12148/btv1b53089800t/f1.item, https://gallica.bnf.fr/ark:/12148/btv1b5905631t/f1.item, "Full text of "Indian place names of New England, "Why did settlers come to New Hampshire and Vermont, and where did they come from? Fish ladders constructed since the first fish passage in 1980 at Turners Falls, have enabled migrating fish to return to some of their former spawning grounds. The dam and powerhouse is approximately 1.5 miles upstream of the White River and approximately 7 miles downstream of the Ompompanoosuc River. When the water receded, it left behind silt-caused mud which in places was 3 feet (1 m) thick; the recovery effort in Springfield, at the height of the American Great Depression, took approximately a decade. Prepared for New England Power, 1996. [64], A number of colonial animal species make their home in the waters of the Connecticut. [48] The river drops more than 2,480 feet (760 m) in elevation as it winds south to the border of Massachusetts where it sits 190 feet (58 m) above sea level. See Dams Over Time, an animated map series of the increase in dams since 1850. [40] The final drive included 500 workers controlling 65 million feet of logs. The main stem and its tributaries have been heavily modified over the decades in this cradle of the American industrial revolution for power generation, flood control, water withdrawal and other purposes. The first group of pioneers left the Plymouth Colony in 1632 and ultimately founded the village of Matianuck (which became Windsor, Connecticut) several miles north of the Dutch fort. Fresh water sponges the size of dinner plates have been found by scuba divers at depths of more than 130 feet (40 m), thought to be the deepest in the river. 1636). Shad run as far north as Holyoke, Massachusetts where they are lifted over the Holyoke Dam by a fish elevator. Lake Francis was created in the 1940s to provide flood control. Introduced species include stocked rainbow trout. The “Trophy Stretch” is a fly-fishing only section of the river that starts at the outlet of First Connecticut Lake Dam and run 2.5 miles downstream to the inlet of Lake Francis. The lower 60 miles (97 km) of the river are tidal. Currently, DEEP is removing about two dams each year, while other non-profit groups including the Nature Conservancy and the Connecticut River Conservancy are each removing as many as four every year in New England. [64] Eleven of them occur in the mainstem of the Connecticut; the brook floater is found only in small streams and rivers. [23] He called it the "Fresh River" and claimed it for the Netherlands as the northeastern border of the New Netherland colony. In some places, the state line is now inundated by the impoundments of dams built after this time.[32]. It was also known as the Fresh River, and the Dutch called it the Verse River. "There are over 4,000 dams in Connecticut streams, so they're very, very dense. In 2017, many of the Connecticut River towns that. The Nature Conservancy named the Connecticut River's tidelands one of the Western Hemisphere's "40 Last Great Places", while the Ramsar Convention on Wetlands listed its estuary and tidal wetlands as one of 1,759 wetlands of international importance. 190 bridge between Enfield and Suffield. [36] A final pulp drive consisted of 100,000 cords of four-foot logs in 1918. [71][72] Many towns along the Lower Connecticut River have enacted a cap on further development along the banks, so that no buildings may be constructed except on existing foundations. For the better part of the 20th century, the Connecticut River hydroelectric system has been one of the largest renewable energy systems in New England. Soon afterwards, Atlantic salmon became extinct in the watershed. [5] It produces 70% of Long Island Sound's fresh water, discharging at 18,400 cubic feet (520 m3) per second. THE RIVER SYSTEM. This was to take advantage of the wartime demand.[36]. Depth varies widely, and is constantly changing on this dynamic river that is also managed for hydro power production. The Connecticut is one of the most completely developed rivers in the United States in terms of hydroelectric power. Numerous tribes lived throughout the fertile Connecticut River valley prior to Dutch exploration beginning in 1614. Dams were built at Turner's Falls and Holyoke, Massachusetts that prevented shad from reaching spawning areas above the dams. Prepared by Connecticut River Valley Flood Control Commission. American eels are also present, as are predators of these migratory fish including striped bass. January 15th, 2020 | Tags: dams, erosion, Great River Hydro, hydro, hydropeaking | Prepared for New England Power, 1996. [62], The Connecticut River and its many tributaries are home to many typical New England fresh water species. This map was prepared in 1996 by US Fish and Wildlife Service. But a spokesman for Great River Hydro, which operates the Vernon Dam that is just south of the boat ramp on the Connecticut River, said the decline in the river level is only temporary. [5][6], The Connecticut River Valley is home to some of the northeastern United States' most productive farmland, as well as a metropolitan region of approximately two million people surrounding Springfield, Massachusetts, and Hartford, Connecticut. [16] The agricultural Pocomtuc tribe lived in unfortified villages alongside the Connecticut River north of the Enfield Falls on the fertile stretch of hills and meadows surrounding Springfield, Massachusetts. ANDY SCHAFERMEYER Facebook The Connecticut River Valley's central location, fertile soil, and abundant natural resources made it the target of centuries of border disputes, beginning with Springfield's defection from the Connecticut Colony in 1641, which brought the Massachusetts Bay Colony to the river. Connecticut River Watershed Project The Connecticut River watershed is the largest in New England, flowing through the states of New Hampshire, Vermont, Massachusetts and Connecticut. Demand was reduced to sustainable levels by 1989, reaching approximately a 25% margin of safety by 2009. [47], The Connecticut River is the largest river ecosystem in New England. [5] Among the most extensively dammed rivers in the United States, the Connecticut may soon flow at a more natural pace, according to scientists at the University of Massachusetts at Amherst, who have devised a computer that – "in an effort to balance human and natural needs" – coordinates the holding and releasing of water between the river's 54 largest dams. [60] Several fish ladders and fish elevators have been built to allow fish to resume their natural migration upriver each spring. [19][20], The Pennacook tribe mediated many early disagreements between colonists and other Indian tribes, with a territory stretching roughly from the Massachusetts border with Vermont and New Hampshire, northward to the rise of the White Mountains in New Hampshire. Connecticut was largely dependent on sea trade with Boston and therefore permanently dropped its tax on Springfield, but Springfield allied with Boston nonetheless, drawing the first state border across the Connecticut River. This decline may have been exacerbated by over-fishing in the mid-Atlantic and predation from resurging striped bass populations. Rapid Restoration. A few, such as in Collinsville, are still mostly intact. For the Connecticut River at Great River Hydro's Wilder Dam, Wilder VT At 4:19 PM Today the total flow below the dam was 9,272 CFS. Read More. The Connecticut River begins its 410-mile trip to the sea in Pittsburg, New Hampshire. Connecticut River Paddlers’ Trail; Source to Sea Paddlers’ Recognition & Stories; Guided Fishing & Paddle Trips; News and Events. This resulted in an unsuccessful lawsuit by the state of Connecticut against the diversion of its riparian waters. [44], The creation of the Quabbin Reservoir in the 1930s diverted the Swift River, which feeds the Chicopee River, a tributary of the Connecticut. [52] The Trust for Public Land worked in partnership with the Society for the Protection of New Hampshire Forests, The Nature Conservancy of New Hampshire, and others to raise around $42 million. Since 1952, the Connecticut River Conservancy (CRC) has been a powerful force for positive environmental change in New England. Home | Getting Outside To Enjoy Our Rivers | Maps & Guides | Map – Dams Constructed in the Connecticut River Watershed. A "low head" or "run-of-the-river" dam is a dam across a watercourse that is small and often submerged under the flowing water. 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