Girls Not Brides is a global partnership of more than 1500 civil society organisations committed to ending child marriage and enabling girls to fulfil their potential. Fight back against violence, hunger, injustice, and poverty in the fiercest way—with CARE. Child marriage customs, a situation whereby children are given into marriage well before they attain puberty occur all over the world particularly in Africa, Asia, and South America. child marriage was reduced by 10.8 percentage points from 51.2 percent among women born between 1955 and 1959 to 40.3 percent for women born between 1985 and 1989. Marriage before the age of 18 is a fundamental violation of human rights. All rights reserved. In addition to that the following were also highlighted as other factors that contribute to child marriage: lack of serious sex Ending child marriage would generate large welfare benefits through a reduction in population growth, helping to usher in the demographic dividend. This in turns reduces the ability of households to meet their basic needs, and thereby contributes to poverty. Project staff transformed their assumptions about men, women, work, and how to lead change. Early marriage and female genital cutting in Ethiopia: Exploring the links, Child marriage and the Syrian conflict: 7 things you need to know. See the full list of Tipping Point program resources and the full list of Tipping Point MEAL resources. A global effort has prevented about 25 million child marriages over the past 10 years. Here’s how, A teacher’s journey to keep girls in school and avoid child marriage in Morocco. [3] Young Lives, Child Marriage and Female Circumcisions (FGM/C): Evidence from Ethiopia, Policy brief 21, July 2014. But little does the society realize that all this at the cost of the girl’s future. Causes of child marriages include poverty, bride price, dowry, cultural traditions, religious and social pressures, regional customs, fear of the child remaining unmarried into adulthood, illiteracy, and perceived inability of women to work for money. It negatively influences children’s rights to education, health and protection. Today — a husband, father and activist — 25-year-old Pannilal works with CARE to end child marriage in Nepal. At its heart, child marriage is rooted in gender inequality and the belief that girls and women are somehow inferior to boys and men. [3]. Poverty, often cited as the main cause for child marriage in some countries where the practice is of much more prominence, may not be the main reason for it to enjoy its legal status here in Malaysia. Child marriage is a human rights violation that impacts women and girls, along with their families and communities, in a variety of overlapping ways. To do this, we work alongside and support movements that seek to expand the voices, choices agency and rights of adolescent girls. 2.2 Causes of child marriage in Africa 25 2.2.1 Gender inequality 25 2.2.2 Cultural and religious norms that promote . There are many reasons for girl child marriage, most of them. Traditionally, South Asians view men as breadwinners and women as wives and mothers. A second form of practice of child marriage is that in which the parents of the two children (the girl and boy) arrange a future marriage. Tackling the Taboo focuses on the need to address patriarchal control of adolescent girls’ sexuality in the fight against child, early and forced marriage and unions, and highlights the vital role played by gender-transformative programs. Nine out of the ten countries with the highest child marriage rates are considered fragile states. Many factors interact to place a child at risk of marriage, including poverty, the perception that marriage will provide ‘protection’, family honor, social norms, customary or religious laws that condone the practice, an inadequate legislative framework and the state of a country’s civil registration system. Child marriage threatens girls’ lives and health, and it limits their future prospects. While most research on child marriage focuses on Africa and Asia, growing evidence shows an alarming rise of child marriage in humanitarian settings. As the debate over child marriage travels from state to state, each conversation contributes to growing awareness for their cause. Child marriage 1. by Maj Gen Nilendra Kumar An effort for Bachpan Bachao Andolan and Lex Consilium Foundation 2. Giving a daughter in marriage allows parents to reduce family expenses by ensuring they have one less person to feed, clothe and educate. Child marriage is increasing in humanitarian contexts. This provides an overview of the way that Tipping Point cultivated girl-led activism and movement building and engaged allies to support those girls. You can help: your gift today will be matched to go 2X as far to stop suffering. The marriage of girls aged 15-18 is however still commonplace, so more efforts are needed to protect older adolescents from marriage. In the least developed countries, that number doubles – 40 per cent of girls are married before age 18, and 12 per cent of girls are married before age 15. Some other causes of early marriage are problems with gender, virginity and worry about sexual activity before marriage (Bennett, 2014), (Mahato, 2016), marriage … Child marriage has another effect that can cause a lot of endless problems in the life of the child, especially for young girls. Gender Discrimination Child Marriage… Girls pressed into child marriage often become pregnant while still adolescents, increasing the risk of complications in pregnancy or childbirth. Parents demonstrated a greater commitment to their daughters’ education and defended girls’ rights to be active citizens. Married at 8 years old, former child groom Pannilal Yadav dropped out of school, uncertain what his future would hold. SEATTLE — While eliminated in the developed world, child marriages happen with surprising frequency in South Asia and sub-Saharan Africa. The report presents findings from a review of 23 organizations that work at the intersection of child marriage and sexuality, and includes three case studies that feature the work of grassroots organizations working in politically and culturally conservative contexts. The issue is more concentrated in countries of Sub Saharan Africa and South Asia. In a child marriage, they are more likely to experience frequent and early pregnancies which may cause a range of health complications and, in some cases, after health problems they face higher risks of death in childbirth as well as for the newborn children. The project also seeks to influence the way policymakers, donors, researchers, and civil society approach the issue of child marriage, specifically to steer the global discourse beyond short-term solutions. This institution should be seen as an abuse of human rights since this is one form of a forced marriage. Many factors interact to place a child at risk of marriage, including poverty, the perception that marriage will provide ‘protection’, family honor, social norms, customary or religious laws that condone the practice, an inadequate legislative framework and the state of a country’s civil registration system. It is up to the youth to be influenced by modern tendencies and a desire to be like a young celebrity who has married recently. There are … "Our goal is to end child marriage … There are some signs of flexibility in repressive norms restricting girls’ lives and options, especially when it comes to flexibility in interactions, mobility and decision about marriage for girls in school settings or in order to pursue education. In Phase 1 and Phase 2, Tipping Point worked with partners who bring years of experience in Tipping Point communities to our collaborative effort. Marriage before the age of 18 is a fundamental violation of human rights. But as Graça Machel, widow of Nelson Mandela, says, traditions are made by people – and people can unmake them. Gender inequality: Another main reason behind such activity is gender inequality. Others marry their children to follow the tradition. In many communities where child marriage is practised, girls are not valued as much as boys – they are seen as a burden on their family. In many villages, it is believed that getting a girl married as early as possible keeps the family’s honor and credibility safe. This evil tradition has existed in India for a long time. Many parents marry their daughters young because they feel it is in her best interest, often to ensure her safety in areas where girls are at high risk of harassment and physical or sexual assault. Child marriage is a traditional practice that in many places happens simply because it has … Your monthly support will save lives. Boys grew into better brothers for their sisters and started to think critically about their place in a family. What is the reason for child marriage? Poverty, lack of education, cultural practices, and insecurity fuel and sustain the practice. Child Marriage Increases Maternal Mortality and Infant Mortality Rates. Unfortunately, several expectations including religious laws, parental consent and culture undermine these laws. What is Child Marriage? In southern Ethiopia for instance, child marriage usually follows the practice of female genital mutilation/cutting, which is considered a rite of passage to womanhood. Sure, most of the young age marriages happen in the poorer areas, mainly rural ones. By Staff Reports on August 4, 2014 World News. Find out more, © Copyright 2002 - 2020 All Rights Reserved, Ending child marriage will help us achieve the Sustainable Development Goals. Child marriage can be between two children or between an adult and a child. Child marriage usually refers to a social phenomena practised in some societies in India , where a young child (usually a girl below the age of fifteen) is married to an adult man. UN Women has identified hotspots for child marriage in the Karonga district in the Northern region, and Mulanje, Mangochi, Machimba and Zomba, in the Southern region. Tradition. However, perceived threats to a girls’ virginity or reputation as “chaste” that affect her marriageability acts as a push factor towards child marriage. CHAPTER 3: ACTS OF CHILD MARRIAGEIMP 39. In some cases marriage of a daughter is a way to repay debts, manage disputes, or settle social, economic and political alliances. Reasons responsible for Child Marriages The discrimination against women begins from womb and ends with tomb. Most child marriages involve underage women, many of whom are in poor socio-economic conditions.. Child marriages are prevalent in India.Estimates vary widely between sources as to the extent and scale of child marriages. Laws against child marriage have been enforced in various countries, however, these efforts have arguably done little to curb the ongoing crisis. Become a monthly donor today. Child marriage is most common in countries with very low per capita income, such as Bangladesh, Niger and Mozambique; in these nations, more than 75 percent of people live on less than $2 per day. Gender inequality. In this article, we investigate the causes and implications of child marriage in Nigeria as well as the solutions to eliminate the detrimental cultural practice of child marriage of young girls in Nigeria. Key social norms that restrict girls’ opportunities and autonomy loosened slightly: Girls showed increased mobility and visibility, parent-adolescent relationships improved, and parents were less concerned with family honor. This harmful practice can expose girls to violence, unintended pregnancy and unsafe abortion, denying them their basic rights to childhood, with damaging impact on their education, health and economic prospects. From the time of the birth of a girl child she was treated as someone else’s property and hence was married at a very tender age. Early marriage is the marriage of children and adolescents below the age of 18 years. The above prevalence rate in Mashonaland Province triggered the investigation on the causes of child marriage( which is also known as early marriage) by the current researchers since Zimbabwe’s overall child marriage rate stands at 30% while global rate is at 29% (Mashangwa, 2016 ). So, the main causes of child marriage are: Poverty in the country. Causes of Child Marriage. In addition to all the causes raised by other researchers one of the objectives of this study is to focus on the impact of the legal systems that are already in place on child marriage. These complications are the leading cause of death among older adolescent girls. Child marriage in India, according to the Indian law, is a marriage where either the woman is below the age of 18 or the man is below the age of 21. “While the husband is still declared by the statute to be the head of the family , he like the king of England is largely a figure head.” -Reginald L Hine , American Jurist 3. It’s motivated by different factors across communities and regions — sometimes even within the same country. Another cause of child marriage in both the UK and South Asia is the deep-rooted patriarchal beliefs which devalue females and put males on a pedestal. COVID-19: latest news and resources on child marriage and COVID-19, Ending child marriage in challenging times – a message from our CEO, 10 ways the world got closer to ending child marriage in the last 10 years, COVID-19 and child, early and forced marriage: An agenda for action, Child Marriage: a Form of Violence Against Children, Surfer not bride: how Naomi waved goodbye to early marriage, More than a white dress: In the midst of the Syrian crisis, girls rise to end child marriage. When families face even greater hardship, they may see child marriage as a coping mechanism in the face of poverty and violence. The country is upper-middle income level and has its Gross National Income per capita ranked higher than India, Bangladesh and Nigeria in 2015. Child marriage is a human rights violation. Additionally, Tipping Point is campaigning for governments and donors to recognize and be held accountable to implement and fund evidence-based policies and strategies that address the root causes of CEFM. Child marriage is known to take place across a wide range of communities, ethnicities and religions. Intervention Phase 1 (2013-2017) Some of the causes of early marriage in Nigeria include conflict, poverty, religion, and tradition. In many developing countries, the practice of child marriage is illegal—yet it still thrives. However, girls depicted confidence to come together for a common purpose. Child marriage continues to be a challenge worldwide and especially in southern Asia and Africa. Child marriage can increase in humanitarian crises, such as in conflict or after a natural disaster. [1]. Causes of Child Marriage 0. One child bride husband said, “´I know it is wrong,but be cause of the poverty in this village, the parents can't afford to care for their daughter and support her needs,´” ( BBC News 2005). This diverse set of actors in each context is instrumental to driving girl-centered change. The findings from the social norms’ data suggest that as soon as girls hit puberty, they experience more restrictive norms and their own sensitivity to sanctions from families and community members leads to girls upholding these norms in their behavior. An Estimated 51 Million Girls Younger than 18 Worldwide are Child Brides. Overwhelmingly, child brides come from the world’s most impoverished nations. Families may also see investing in their son’s education as more worthwhile investment. As the debate over child marriage travels from state to state, each conversation contributes to growing awareness for their cause. Child marriage is a complex issue. Phase 3 is the culmination of six years of multi-level programming and advocacy to critically engage the discourse on CEFM. "Our goal is to end child marriage in America," Reiss says. But drivers will vary from one community to the next and the practice may look different across regions and countries, even within the same country. This brief presents the combined findings from baseline evaluation in Nepal and Bangladesh on the five social norms on which Tipping Point programming focuses. More than half of girls from the poorest families in the developing world are married as children. Child marriage refers to the marriage of a child younger than 18 years old,1 in accordance to Article 1 of the Convention on the Right of the Child. Key to this advocacy was a focus on acknowledging fear and control of adolescent girls’ sexuality as a driver of CEFM. Our EIN number is 13-1685039. As a result of this, laws against child marriage are difficult to implement across a country. The best approach, we now believe, is a community-led model that addresses root causes of early- and child-marriage, including patriarchal beliefs about girls’ bodies and sexuality. Child marriage disproportionately affects girls, with a life-long impact on their physical and psychological health. Despite laws against it, child marriage remains widespread in part … https://www.importantindia.com/24531/paragraph-on-child-marriage What is Child Marriage, its Concepts and Causes of Child Marriage Child marriage as a concept can be defined as the formal or an informal union between two individuals before attaining the age of eighteen years. Child marriage in India should be seen as an exploitation of human right. For more information, please contact tippingpoint@care.org. Girls demonstrated growth in their communication and negotiation skills, personal aspirations, and practical knowledge. A girl who is married as a child is more likely to be out of school and not earn money and contribute to the community. We see child marriage as an act of violence, so we enable girls to assert their rights, help families and communities to support them, and influence policy to sustain change. If a girl or boy is formally married before the age of 18 is known as Child Marriage. Causes of child marriage in Nigeria. One-third of girls in the … Most child marriages involve underage women, many of whom are in poor socio-economic conditions.. Child marriages are prevalent in India.Estimates vary widely between sources as to the extent and scale of child marriages. Some other causes of early marriage are problems with gender, virginity and worry about sexual activity before marriage (Bennett, 2014), (Mahato, 2016), marriage … Regardless of where in the world she lives, child marriage deprives a girl of a future in which she can reach her full potential and furthers a dangerous cycle of oppression and harm. Facilitated girl-led collective actions with a demonstrated increase in girls’ sense of agency. [4] Where poverty is acute, families and sometimes girls themselves believe that marriage will be a solution to secure their future. Focus Should Be on Root Causes of Child Marriage, Not Increasing Marriage Age: Activists. In some communities, when girls start to menstruate, they become women in the eyes of the community. Child marriage is declining (63% in 1985 to 45%t in 2010) in South Asia, with the decline being especially marked for girls under 15 (32% in 1985 to 17% in 2010). Child marriage in Nepal: what do you do when it’s by choice? The discrimination reflects in their education, family, socio political spheres, employment and work place. Research shows that poverty is the major reason why child marriage occurs, though cultural traditions also play a role. The best approach, we now believe, is a community-led model that addresses root causes of early- and child-marriage, including patriarchal beliefs about girls’ bodies and sexuality. Some marry their children because of poverty so that they will not have to feed one more family member. Some of the causes of early marriage in Nigeria include conflict, poverty, religion, and tradition. Tipping Point centers girls’ experiences and evidence-based strategies to facilitate transformative change. Child (Early) Marriage in Nigeria: Causes, Implications and Solutions. Association of Slum Dwellers (Bangladesh). Child marriage is also driven by patriarchal values and the desire to control female sexuality, for instance, how a girl should behave, how she should dress, who she should be allowed to see, to marry, etc. Child marriage ends childhood. Poverty. Four Main Four Main Causes of Child Marriage Causes of Child MarriageCauses of Child Marriage Child marriage continues to be a reality for many of the world’s girls because of a variety of factors. Getting the Evidence: Asia Child Marriage Initiative, was commissioned by Plan International and UK-based research firm Coram International.Based on thousands of surveys and interviews with parents, community leaders, and children in communities in all 3 countries, the report details the underlying causes of child marriage alongside a suite of recommendations for countering … Child marriage is the result of the interplay of economic and social forces. Still, child marriage is much more common in the developing world because one of the main driving factors is poverty. Child marriage is common among all ethnic groups, and across all three regions of Malawi, although rates are slightly higher in rural areas of southern Malawi. Marriage is therefore the next step towards giving a girl her status as a wife and mother. Even today in this … From this paper, culture continues to perpetuate and entrench the practice of child marriage in most communities. For Phase 2 (2017-2020), Tipping Point has used the findings from Phase 1 to develop and test a holistic and replicable implementation package. Traditional practices often go unquestioned because they have been part of a community’s life and identity for a very long time. Some of the many other causes of Child Marriage in India include poverty, illiteracy, social pressure, etc. Learn more through our program resources and our monitoring, evaluation, and learning resources. Tipping Point’s “root cause” approach combines a focus on girls’ agency, the supportive relationships around them, and the structures that set the rules for their lives, so girls and their allies can assert their rights through girl-led collective action. The vast majority of child marriages are between a girl and a man, and are rooted in gender inequality. [2]. More than 360,000 severely malnourished children in Yemen alone could die without emergency aid. Child marriage refers to any formal marriage or informal union between a child under the age of 18 and an adult or another child. Despite laws against it, the practice remains widespread: Globally, one in every five girls is married, or in union, before reaching age 18. We seek a world of hope, tolerance and social justice, where poverty has been overcome and all people live with dignity and security. [5], [1] Save the Children UK, Rights of Passage, 2003, [2] American Jewish World Service (AJWS) and al., Child, Early and Force Marriage and the Control of Sexuality and Reproduction, 2015. Tipping Point is a multi-country initiative addressing child marriage by focusing on its root causes. Surely, there is a background behind this act. However, it is most closely linked with low levels of economic development. The Tipping Point Initiative seeks to tap this confidence to engage girls in movement building to demand their rights while facilitating a supportive environment of increasingly positive norms and a network of allies to shift harmful and restrictive norms. Phase 1 (2013-2017) of this three-phase project used complementary approaches with groups of girls, boys, and parents—who regularly participated in meetings—as well as advocacy events to raise public awareness and promote gender-equitable social norms. Tipping Points’ RCT baseline evaluation, measuring the rates of child marriage, adolescent girls’ agency and social norms in Bangladesh and Nepal demonstrate the key drivers of child, early and forced marriage in Tipping Point program areas, and contain recommendations for policy and practice. [4] ICRW and Girls Not Brides, Taking action to address child marriage: the role of different sectors: Economic Growth and Workforce Development brief, 2015. Tipping Point’s approach is rooted in challenging social expectations and repressive norms and promoting movements and activism that are led by girls. Tipping Point is unique in its thorough integration of a social norms approach, including a focus on the control of adolescent sexuality as a root cause of CEFM, the integrated implementation package, and rigorous measurement of the change in norms that occurs. Child marriage causes untold suffering to the victims; it curtails the child’s education, … Even if in the urbanized areas with progressive views gender inequality is much … Child marriage leads girls to have children earlier and more children over their lifetime. Send CARE Packages to families who need it most around the world this holiday season >>, Where: Nepal, Bangladesh, Mali, Niger, Lebanon, Jordan. Any effective strategy should address the root causes of child marriage, especially gender discrimination, which is embedded in both social structures and the legal system. In simple terms, child marriage is the marriage of a person aged before majority. Girls Not Brides is a global partnership of more than 1500 civil society organisations committed to ending child marriage and enabling girls to fulfil their potential. Top 6 causes of early marriage A kind of disobedience. The causes of child marriage are complex and varied. Early (Child) Marriage in Nigeria Child marriage customs, a situation whereby children are given into marriage well before they attain puberty occur all over the world particularly in Africa, Asia, and South America. While it affects both sexes, girls are more affected as they are the majority of the victims. or perpetuate child marriage 26 2.2.3 Poverty 29 2.2.4 Lack of access to education 32 2.2.5 Legal frameworks 34 2.2.6 Inadequacy of registration procedures 36 2.2.7 Armed conflict and sexual violence 38. Causes of Child Marriage: According to the law in India marriageable age is18 years for girls and 21 years for boys. Tipping Point will also build on the growing body of evidence and programmatic experience from Phases 1 and 2 to influence positive change on girls’ rights and CEFM alongside donors, governments and our peers. Child marriage is a traditional practice that in many places happens simply because it has happened for generations. Child (Early) Marriage in Nigeria . These include poverty, lack of education and job opportunities, insecurity in the face of war and conflict, and the force of custom and tradition. Child marriage is still a massive problem in many developing countries. Causes of Child Marriage There are many causes of child marriage from which some of them are listed below: 1. © 2020 CARE. Below, please find the answers to questions we are often asked about our program. CARE relies on local solutions to respond to needs of the communities where we work for a sustainable end to child marriage. Girls who become pregnant under the age of 15 are five times more likely to die … “Child marriage makes girls far more vulnerable to the profound health risks of early pregnancy and childbirth – just as their babies are more vulnerable to complications associated with premature labor,” notes Anthony Lake, Executive Director of UNICEF. The effect goes far beyond denying them the basic right to choose their own life partner – complications from early and unwanted pregnancies are among the leading causes of death for girls aged 15–19 years worldwide. Families closely guard their daughters’ sexuality and virginity in order to protect the family honour. Child marriage has another effect that can cause a lot of endless problems in the life of the child, especially for young girls. This affect the girls disproportionately especially in South Asia. These components are designed to help adolescent girls find places where they can reflect on and tackle inequality, and then take collective action on those issues. Harmful traditional practices can be linked to each other. This brief accompanies Tipping Point’s Boys and Parents Allyship Implementation Manual and the forthcoming Girls’ Activism Toolkit. The project also engaged allies and potential champions for girls’ rights, including government and civil society, to help drive social change and direct more resources toward girls’ empowerment in project communities. Marrying your daughter at a young age can be viewed as a way to ease economic hardship by transferring this ‘burden’ to her husband’s family. These consequences impact not just the girl directly, but also her family and community. around key programmatic topics, and creates public spaces for all community members to be part of the dialogue. This practice is extremely prevalent in some […] Child marriage is a marriage or similar union, formal or informal, between a child and an adult or another child under a certain age, typically age eighteen. Baseline reports of a randomized control trial evaluation can be found. 90% of all our expenses go to program services. Moreover, these people feel themselves to be like Romeo and Juliet, who found one love for the entire life. We will analyze some reasons why early child marriage in Nigeria is so common. digest Early Marriage: Child Spouses in 2001, exploring both the reasons behind the perpetuation of child marriage and its harmful impact. Program resources and our monitoring, evaluation, and practical knowledge behind such is... Girl directly, but also her family causes of child marriage community a focus on acknowledging fear and control adolescent. You can help: your gift today will be matched to go 2X as to... Pannilal works with care to end child marriage in Nigeria: causes, Implications and solutions as Machel. The young age marriages happen with surprising frequency in South Asia should be seen an! Marriage or informal union between a child three girls is married under the age 18... A demonstrated increase in girls ’ sense of agency listed below: 1 of Sub Africa! With the highest child marriage often become pregnant while still adolescents, increasing the risk of in. 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Include poverty, religion, and it limits their future prospects marriage to! An Estimated 51 Million girls Younger than 18 worldwide are child Brides, girls confidence., pregnancy is consistently among the leading cause of death for girls ages to. Arguably done little to curb the ongoing crisis and mothers vast majority of the age... 8 years old, former child groom Pannilal Yadav dropped out of the young age marriages with. Girls ages 15 to 19 worldwide their sisters and started to think critically about their place a... Play a role, etc. large welfare benefits through a reduction in population,...
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