"[99], On 11 May 2012, the briefing notes for the meeting with Suncor VP and Environment Canada included EC's concerns for the cumulative effects of oil sands development. [26] The reindeer species Rangifer tarandus, of which Rangifer tarandus caribou is a subspecies, is a medium-sized ungulate which inhabits boreal, montane and Arctic environments and exhibits "tremendous variation in ecology, genetics, behaviour and morphology." There are 12 designated units for conservation purposes[60] including the most-at-risk herds, AB2 Bistcho, Little Smoky, a small isolated local population at risk of extirpation, AB1 Chinchaga in Alberta and British Columbia, AB8 Richardson, AB6 Red Earth, AB11 Nipisi, a small local population, and AB7 West Side Athabasca River. [34][35][36][37][Notes 2], In 2005, an analysis of mtDNA found differences between the caribou from Newfoundland, Labrador, southwestern Canada and southeastern Canada, but maintained all in R. t caribou. This page was last edited on 22 November 2020, at 14:47. [75] Slate Island, where there were no wolves or other predators, had the highest density of boreal woodland caribou in the world with a population peaking at 660. [93][94]:46, According to the 2019 Recovery Strategy for the Woodland Caribou, the "primary threat to most boreal caribou local populations is unnaturally high predation rates. Weight: 110 to 210 kg (240 to 460 lb) [29] Boreal woodland caribou antlers are thicker and broader than those of the barren-ground caribou and their legs and heads are longer. On November 14, 2018, Wildlands League called on the federal government to step in and protect boreal caribou critical habitat in two ranges in northwestern Ontario. [57][Notes 5][48] BC5 Prophet (small local population). Along with losing food and shelter, disturbances through the forest allow wolves to travel and hunt caribou much easier, which increases predation rate on caribou. For one, the woodland caribou is not made to fend off certain predators like the wolves that live up in the boreal forests of Canada. Caribou are monitored through a capture and collaring with VHF or Global Positioning System (GPS) collars[104] tracking collars. Population size is small: about 5,300 mature individuals, 6,500 total population. [98][100][101], "Environment Canada is not only concerned with the environmental impacts of individual oil and gas projects, it is concerned with the cumulative effects of development, especially in the oil sands and urban centers. Woodland caribou (R. t. caribou) extended south to 42 degrees N, and were found in parts of New England, New York, the Upper Great Lakes states, Montana, Idaho, and Washington. Unless the habitat of these beautiful and elusive animals is protected, the high-risk herds of caribou will accelerate down their path to extinction. "Destruction of habitat, hunting and disturbances by humans during the construction of roads and pipelines are all factors that have contributed to the decline of Woodland Caribou."[10]. Boreal woodland caribou are a variety of caribou, related to the caribou living in the north. Antlers of boreal woodland caribou are flattened, compact, and relatively dense. Boreal caribou have a unique spatial strategy for calving, … The boreal population of caribou lives in the boreal forest all year. [28] On the males these grow so quickly each year that velvety lumps in March can become a rack measuring more than a metre in length by August. In his article entitled "Woodland Caribou: A Conservation Dilemma", Idaho Department of Fish and Game biologist Peter Zager described how the range of the boreal woodland caribou had dramatically declined. [14] She noted that by 1991 caribou were a threatened species in Alberta and an endangered species in Washington/Idaho. In 1996 there were 1,300 animals. The years keep coming and they don't stop coming, and critical habitat of caribou is still being forked over to logging and oil and gas companies to have their way with. "[39], Caribou herds are classified by ecotype depending on several behavioural factors – predominant habitat use (northern, tundra, mountain, forest, boreal forest, forest-dwelling), spacing (dispersed or aggregated) and migration patterns (sedentary or migratory). "[33] COSEWIC developed Designated Unit (DU) attribution to add to classifications already in use.[27]. New forest growth following destruction of vegetation provides habitat and food for other ungulates, which in turn attracts more predators, putting pressure on woodland caribou. The woodland caribou is the largest of the caribou subspecies and is darker in colour than the barren-ground caribou. In 2006 there were approximately 200 to 340 individual boreal woodland caribou in the BC1 Maxhamish DU, north of Fort Nelson,[57] BC2 Calendar. In 2003 its distribution covered 235 000 km2,mainly east of the 72nd meridian. The name caribou was probably derived from the Mi'kmaq word xalibu or qalipu meaning "the one who paws". Most caribou habitat in the area Tolko logs is already riddled with clearcuts and bisected by roads. In Ontario and nationally, boreal caribou are classified as threatened with extinction.

Mech. in winter and, in comparison to other woodland caribou, also generally have distinct horizontal as well as vertical change in location when migrating from low-elevation winter ranges in early winter to higher-elevation ranges in late winter (Heard & Vagt 1998). "[9], Compared to barren-ground caribou or Alaskan caribou, boreal woodland caribou do not form large aggregations and are more dispersed particularly at calving time. The increase of roads intersecting the led to increased hunting and poaching and increased predator/prey densities. Boreal populations of woodland caribou (Rangifer tarandus caribou), for example, are at the forefront of recovery priorities under Canada's Species at Risk Act (Government of Canada 2019). [23] Silas Tertius Rand included the term kaleboo in his Mi'kmaq-English Dictionary in 1888. The logging corporation says this is likely just a blip. [76] Because of a food shortage in 1990, their numbers were reduced to less than 100. [40][41], In eastern North America caribou are classified into three ecotypes – "the mountain caribou which is found south of the St. Lawrence River, the barren-ground caribou which calves in the tundra, and in between, the forest-dwelling ecotype which lives all year long in the boreal forest. What is Being Done "[2][3] "They are extremely sensitive to both natural (such as forest fires) and human disturbance, and to habitat damage and fragmentation brought about by resource exploration, road building, and other human activity. "Since the mid-1990s, the George River Herd has declined catastrophically. British Columbia uses telemetry and computer modelling. Harvest rates north of the park are also confirmed to reduce caribou migrations into the park. [45] In the Northwest Territories, the Canadian Parks and Wilderness Society identified five types of caribou – boreal woodland caribou, northern mountain woodland caribou, barren-ground caribou, Peary caribou and the Dolphin-Union caribou herd. In BC, in 2018 a leaked audit revealed that the oil and gas commission was allowing industrial activities to proceed regardless of the rules outlined in the boreal caribou implementation plan. While the woodland caribou, Rangifer tarandus caribou (boreal population), boreal woodland caribou or boreal caribou, which is mainly sedentary, was assessed in May 2002 as threatened by the Committee on the Status of Endangered Wildlife in Canada (COSEWIC), not all herds and populations are endangered. Boreal woodland caribou. Their seasonal movements are not as extensive. Vors, L.S., J.A. 2003. On 3 February 2013, a joint Canada-Alberta world-class, comprehensive and integrated monitoring system of the oil sands was announced. The boreal woodland caribou (forest-dwelling) ecotype is found discontinuously, mainly between the 49th and 55th parallels. ", The AB5 Little Smoky Herd "is the most critically disturbed boreal caribou habitat in the country" with "only five per cent of intact forest left in the Little Smoky Range. The woodland caribou ecotype (Rangifer tarandus caribou) has experienced a 40% recession in its Ontario range over the past 150 years in tandem with industrial development. Adults have a brown to dark-brown coat in summer,[10] becoming greyer in winter. Pond, Arthur R. Rodgers and B.R. People rarely ever see caribou because of the decrease of the population. The boreal woodland caribou (Rangifer tarandus caribou), also known as woodland caribou, boreal forest caribou and forest-dwelling caribou, is a North American subspecies of the reindeer (or the caribou in North America) with the vast majority of animals in Canada. Native to both Newfoundland and Labrador. "[72] "Woodland caribou are a sensitive indicator of the ecological effects of development in northern Ontario. Boreal caribou are a distinct population of woodland caribou. [Notes 1]Boreal woodland caribou—are mainly but not always—sedentary. Currently, there is variation across the NWT in rates and population declines in parts of the southern NWT where the majority of boreal caribou occur. [106], Subspecies of caribou or reindeer in North America, Woodland caribou in Newfoundland and Labrador, In their 2012 report entitled "Recovery Strategy for the Woodland Caribou (Rangifer tarandus caribou), Boreal population, in Canada", Environment Canada and SARA refer to the woodland caribou as "boreal caribou". The life of a herbivore is hard, having to escape from predators. The woodland caribou subspecies' taxonomic name, Rangifer tarandus caribou, was defined by Gmelin in 1788. In insular Newfoundland, in Gros Morne National Park, for example, boreal woodland caribou R. t. caribou are "usually seen on the Long Range traverse and sometimes on Gros Morne Mountain. This represented "annual rates of decline ranging from 4.6% to 15.2% from 1999 to 2012" in the OSR. Schaefer, B.A. According to the then-Canadian Wildlife Service Chief Mammalogist, Frank Banfield, the earliest record of Rangifer tarandus caribou in North America is from a 1.6 million year old tooth found in the Yukon Territory. Boreal caribou live in forests, and travel much shorter distances every year, if at all. Although they are included as boreal woodland caribou, the George River and Leaf River caribou herds are migratory, covering thousands of miles each year to and from their birthing grounds. The woodland caribou ( e.g ), was defined by Gmelin in 1788 currently a minimum of 728 caribou. Ungava region to Quebec and insular Newfoundland Cladina spp ] there are woodland! 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