1. Step 4: Add on the length of the overhang. Chicken Roosting Ideas on A Budget squarespace.com. Étape 3 - Fixing Roof Down. 2) Ventilation removes ammonia fumes from the coop. Adding a roof the run has many benefits. In the summer months, the eaves provide extra shade for your chickens. Some chicken runs simply use more hardware cloth as a "roof" - while this does not provide protection from the elements, it will prevent predators from flying into the run or from climbing into the run. The roofing is a self-sufficient garden, and the eggs lay. What is the best way to heat a chicken coop in winter: possible heating methods with advantages and disadvantages. Free-range chickens often end up doing this exactly where you don’t want them too, so it’s a bonus when it’s in their coop or run. Fencing and Roofing. The image below illustrates these two concepts: Roof pitch that is expressed as rise over run is typically presented as a ratio. Some predators dig, while others burrow. In the summer months, they’ll need shade to cool off under and in the winter months adequate cover from the rain. The vent should be up near the ceiling well above the heads of your chickens (remember, no drafts). Chicken run Some chicken coops come with attached runs. Sweeter heaters are simply and safely designed for use in the coop or in the brooding pen. But you may be wondering why you need to waterproof your chicken coop and what the best way is to do so. How to Build a Cover for your Chicken Coop, time-lapse video. Hobbit-Style Chicken Coop. Why Aren’t Eggs Refrigerated in Europe? This post contains affiliate links. When first raising backyard chickens, you need to set up a home for the flock. She makes the roof by using a piece of plywood and covering it with shingles. I recently relocated storage for our chicken food, supplemental calcium, and nesting-box materials from the back porch into the coop itself. A flat roof comes with a few different problems. The roof is to be insulated in the same way using the reflective insulation panel (we have over half left still) or, we can staple cardboard and fill with dry straw. Since hawks typically strike from above, one of the most sure-fire ways to keep chickens safe is to enclose the area you run them in. I’m mentioning this because it might affect your roof coverage. Put a roof on it. You can add cardboard to your coop walls. It’s better to be safe than sorry. If we never needed to go into the run it would only need to be a foot or so higher than a chicken. If you have the option to build the coop from scratch, build it up off the ground at least a foot to make it harder for rats to hide and enter the coop. Once a predator attacks, it will return. I put this video presentation together to teach you exactly what you need to consider when buying or building your first chicken coop. Here’s what I’ve found to be the best ways to protect your chickens from hawks, and other birds of prey. and you want the roof sloping down the 4’ side. Simply position them beside or above your perch, and your birds will keep warm all winter. Another problem with a roof that’s too flat is that your chickens may start to roost on it. Type “4” in for “Run.”. To stop escapes – We’ve all seen the movie Chicken Run, right? Part of the roof will have a living roof. The result is a waterproof, neat looking roof. Proper chicken coop ventilation provides an air exchange allowing bad air out and good air in. It can be made from wood and shingles, corrugated metal, or even plastic sheeting used in greenhouses. You have compost to use in your garden come spring. So, what is the correct pitch for a chicken coop roof? Even if you’re on reasonably hard soil, foxes can be quite determined to access your coop. At this stage, you’re almost done with your chicken coop. The compost will also help heat the coop as it breaks down, too. Chickens are very mobile walking around, they don’t try to fly very often. thanks! In addition, the walls, floor and roof require enhanced insulation. You can add some sand to an area within their run, however, and this is often enough to entice them to use that area. The most important consideration when deciding how tall to make a run is whether or not you’ll be going in there, which you likely will. A good chicken coop has ventilation high up the walls, near the roof. When I first got chickens, choosing a chicken coop was one of the most stressful things for me. Many small chicken coop designs include a way to access the coop via the roof. I did not supply supplemental lighting and my chickens stopped laying eggs for 41 days. Building a chicken coop with a living roof is a way to keep chickens cool during summer. Make sure to check out the example below for clarification. If you want, you can put a layer of newspaper down first to make cleaning easier. Some asphalt can be used at a 3:12 pitch, but other asphalt requires extra support and materials if used at pitch that low. Twice a day I made my way down to the barn to open and close their coop door and to feed and water my chickens. If you want to use mental math, follow these 4 steps. The chicken run must also have a roof: a traditional tar-and-shingle roof or a metal roof will provide shade and protection from the elements. If your run is long enough, the best option is to always go half and half. As you’ll see in the next section, most chicken coop roofs are low-pitched or conventional, based on this classification. Most soils are fine as long as the top layer is loose. ). Yes, a chicken run does need a roof of some kind. For the roof, you can use a sheet of tin since it’s weatherproof. All you do is multiply the rise for the pitch you want—in this case 4 (this is the 4 from 4:12)—by the run, in this case 4 ft. You end up with 16 ft. Next, divide this number (16 ft, in our case) by 12 (this is the 12 from 4:12). Be sure to add a roof. The appropriate arrangement of air will keep your flocks healthy and make your coop free from ammonia. Check out the illustration below: Note that because pitch is a ratio, the units you use don’t matter as long as they are the same for rise and run. This usually looks the best and will do just fine. It all depends on what the weather is like where you live and what kinds of threats are present from predators. Lean-to Chicken Coop - Build Slanted Roof Backyard Hen Coop: Hello,I built a lean-to chicken coop next to ma shed.It's a good idea for urban backyard building. The first thing to consider is size. You have a few options when it comes to choosing a material to make your roof out of. Review a few tips before you get started. A very common, sustainable and maintainable option is wood. Below is a photo of one of my chicken coops with eaves—you can see how much extra shade it provides. This is the main reason why most runs are 6 ft or so tall. But with large birds like owls are known to kill chickens, and foxes are so sly that most of the time no one knows they’re in the neighborhood. When you buy roofing material, always make sure to check what the packaging says. Protect against the elements – Being as the run area is “outside” for most chickens, they are exposed to the elements. Overhangs are very handy for keeping precipitation out of the coop. The run is tall enough to walk in and also has a roof to keep the flock safe. If you don’t let enough sun and warmth in you end up with a muddy run area. For example, say you have a chicken coop roof with a pitch of 3:12. This means you’ll need to clean chicken poop off the top of the roof, which is never convenient. Check out Chicken coops 101: design your chickens’ dream home. Ask me how I know that *sigh* Raccoons can dig quite well. Some of the most common options are: Corrugated metal – Metal sheeting is always one of the easier and less expensive options, but it’s also the ugliest looking (in my opinion) and not the best for protection against the weather. You may also see the ratio written as x/12. This means your roof needs to be 4.22 ft by 8 ft. (Remember, the coop is 4 ft by 8 ft—this is where the 8 comes from). This provides the best of both worlds. I like using pine shavings the best. Place the roof on top of the coop. For climates with heavy snow loads, a chicken coop roof needs to have a minimum pitch of 4:12 or 18.5°. This can be either in the form of a waterproof paint, like the paint that you used on the outside of your chicken coop, or a wood sealant like you might use on the wood of a deck. Wind Turbines. Chickens poop while sleeping, so using a litter tray under the chicken roost is a great way to make cleaning the coop easier. You need to vent out the warm, moisture laden air and replace it … If you have already had a snake invasion, if you don’t take measures to snake-proof your coop, the offenders will return. Replace chicken wire. When enclosing a run on the chicken coop you will want to use welded wire with the small squares instead of chicken wire. At the very least, they’ll be very uncomfortable. You’ll be rat-free within a few weeks! For more on chicken coop roofing materials, check out my article, Chicken Coop Roof Options: What’s the Best Material? Shingles are the most durable weatherproof material, but are more expensive than metal and plastic, and harder to install. Still a work in progress. I’ll cover the following topics: Why you don’t want a chicken coop roof that’s too flat, Why you don’t want a roof that’s too steep. Poop should be removed from the coop frequently to help control ammonia levels (see the section on ventilation). I had so many little (but important) questions that I couldn’t find reliable answers for. The general rule of thumb is 1sq.ft of vent per 10sq.ft of floor space in colder climates. Some of the most common options are: Corrugated metal – Metal sheeting is always one of the easier and less expensive options, but it’s also the ugliest looking (in my opinion) and not the best for protection against the weather. I am in the process of building my garden shed/chicken coop. Podcast #618: ... the doghouse. The new chicks seem pretty happy and warm in their new insulated home! The calculator has calculated the roof length to be 4.22 ft (see the image above). Thankfully, 1/4 inch hardware cloth will stop both of them. Roof pitch is expressed in a couple of different ways. You may see it referred to as the angle between the roof and the horizontal. It's really heavy to shovel up when wet, so I usually let it dry out, then use shovel and rake to remove as much as I can easily get. See more ideas about coops, chicken coop, coop. Add on the length you want for the roof overhang (see the next section for details). If your coop doesn’t have an overhang, rain and snow can get blown into the coop through the ventilation holes. A roof: (Strange But True), Are Backyard Chicken Eggs Safe To Eat? For this example, I’ll use “ft” for units. You have a few options when it comes to choosing a material to make your roof out of. Choose your roof pitch. I’ve never built a structure using any of these, so I can’t provide details. The Chicken Chick believes sand to be the best bedding for your coop. Instead of adding heat, insulation is a better and safer choice. A chicken coop roof needs to have a minimum pitch of 3:12 or 14° in most climates. Sometimes the run will be an extension of the coop and have a wooden roof covered in felt. You want your roof to slope down the 4 ft side of the coop. Determine the rise of your roof. This too is easy to clean; it is a sealed unit and comes with a 3 year warranty. Place your chicken coop so that it is partially in the shade but still gets plenty of sun, and add windows covered with chicken wire to ensure plenty of fresh air. For more on why you may want an overhang and how large it should be, check out the section on overhangs below. It just means you can pull it back to let more sun in if you need to. Does your chicken coop roof need an overhang? Luckily, the Ultimate Chicken Coop features flip-top nesting boxes for easy access for chicken-loving kiddos out on their morning collection. In this article, you will learn everything you need to know to determine the pitch that is … Use the Pythagorean Theorem (see below). When I bought my first house it only had a 20’x20’ backyard. More commonly, you’ll see it referred to as the rise of the roof over the run of the roof. How to calculate the size of the roof you’ll need at the pitch you want. While you don’t have to have a roof overhang, also called eaves, on your chicken coop, I highly recommend it. I drilled pilot holed and inserted 3 1/2″ screws into the top plates. Staple cardboard or thin wood over the insulation to stop your birds pecking at the insulation. Some breeds, like the California White, can clear even higher fences. If you live in a climate with heavy snow loads, you’ll want your roof to be a bit steeper, at least 4:12. Predators seek out chickens in a number of ways. They remained happy and healthy. Use a saw to make the angle cuts to the tongue and groove slats. Insulation should be added when you build your chicken coop, but there are ways to add more afterward. First, flat roofs won’t last as long because rain and snow will pool on top of them. Follow this step-by-step guide of the best way to get rid of rats in chicken coop. After buying and testing out my own Rita Marie’s coop, I became an affiliate for this company. This may cause rotting of the roofing material, and may cause the roof to bend, warp, or even buckle. 8. If your coop is made of wood or has a dirt floor, you’re likely to get rats chewing or digging their way into your coop at night. -On the north side of our coop, I simply removed the 1/16″ hardware cloth backing that the vent came with and placed the vent back over the holes {on the outside of the coop, secured with screws}. How to Set Up a Chicken Coop. (Yes, and Super-Tasty! A dirt floor, linoleum, or a concrete floor are also popular, low maintenance options. If the mental math above is more than you want to think about, or if you want to check that your answers are correct, I recommend Omni’s Roof Pitch Calculator. In all, there are a number of breeds which are best adopted for usage in both weather conditions, hot as well as cold.Cool chicken coop is optimal for usage in the hot weather. It’s more important that it has enough floor space to accommodate all your chickens. People might look at you like you’re crazy, but you know the truth: raising your own chickens at home is an excellent endeavor with plenty of advantages. Want to learn how to build this exact coop? The Best Ways to Winterize a Chicken Coop Straw Is Your Friend. But, if you have some basic woodworking skills and a lot of patience, you can build a great coop that will house your hens comfortably for years to come. Some materials will tell you the minimum pitch required for that material. rays.eval(ez_write_tag([[336,280],'chickenandchicksinfo_com-leader-1','ezslot_9',107,'0','0'])); Waterproof sheeting – If you buy a metal run that pops up it will almost certainly be made from a metal cage with a waterproof cover like a tarp. Unless you sit there all the time, ready to whisk each plop of poo away to the compost pile the moment it comes out of the chicken, there will be some ammonia being released into your coop's atmosphere. The best way to keep foxes out of your chicken coop depends largely on the style of coop and run that you have. Every couple of weeks, it’s a good idea to … Add More Insulation to Your Chicken Coop. The terms “angle,” “incline,” and “slope,” can all be used interchangeably, but the technical term is “pitch.”. Chicken wire is fine for some projects, but it is not the best option for protecting your flock. Rats In Chicken Coop? If your coop doesn’t have this, ... Line the bottom of the coop with wood shavings. Taking into account all of the above, this is why a lot of runs have a mesh roof with a waterproof sheet that pulls over when needed. The BEST luxury coop you’ll ever buy: Spoil your chickens with Rita Marie's, Chicken coop ventilation: 21 design ideas with pictures, Chicken coop pop doors: Size, height off the ground, and design ideas, 8 chicken coop floor options: The best flooring materials, Chicken breedsCoops and runsChicken careChicken behavior, BlogTerms and conditionsPrivacy policyContact me, This is where you use the Pythagorean Theorem, rise, 8 chicken coop floor options: The best flooring materials. These traits make them ideal to use in a chicken coop. The tops close securely with metal latches when they’re all done to keep your birds safe and predators out. For example, most Ondura roofing says to use at a 3:12 pitch minimum. Alternately, make your coop floor out of poured cement. Welded wire is much stronger and is for keeping predators out. Prevention is the best method to keep snakes out of the coop and away from the chickens and their eggs. If you live in a dry climate with very little rain or snow, you could probably get away with a 2:12 pitch. Building a chicken coop may seem like a daunting task at first. For the more crafty types who don’t want an ugly chicken coop in their backyard, this design is inspiring. You will see roof pitch referred to as x:12, where x represents one unit of rise for every 12 units of run. Unless you’re brooding chicks, you don’t need to keep a coop toasty warm, but I do suggest keeping your coop around 40° F. So if you want your birds to produce through the winter (in cold climates specifically), keep your coop’s temperature within your chicken’s comfort zone for best results and happy hens. A wet coop can cause mold and other pathogens to thrive in your coop bedding. A: There are a few different options in terms of the best material for a chicken coop floor. This one looks perfect and cheap. If possible, the experts from Storey’s Guide To Raising Chickens advise drilling the ventilation holes along the ceiling of the south and north walls. My question is how deep is the living roof on your chicken coop? Putting vents in your coop helps to reduce the amount of moisture in the coop and a reduces fumes caused from nitrogen in chicken feces (poop) which can cause respiratory problems in the lungs which can cause breathing problems, bacterial infections and other illness in chickens. This means your roof run is 4 ft. You know your roof length needs to be a minimum of 8 ft, but how long does your roof need to be on the sloping side (i.e., the 4’ run side)? The Best Way to Get Rid of Rats in Your Chicken Coop Step 1: Know your Enemy . Building A Chicken Coop book is developed by a poultry expert, Bill Keene, who shares his expertise with people on steps to build a chicken coop. And it is one of the best ways of controlling odors in the chicken coop. By this, I mean cover half with a roof that will block the sun and provide some shade for your flock. You’ll also need to more strongly reinforce a very steep and long roof with extra roofing nails and more rafters underneath. This compact system might sustain a whole household making it among the very best chicken coop styles. In warmer areas, more is better in order to maintain an ambient temperature in the coop. The accepted minimum sizes are 2 to 3 square feet per bird inside the coop and 4 to 5 square feet per bird in the run. Use of half inch hardware cloth wire instead of chicken wire for covering any openings. Well, real life is nothing like that, but a chicken can still clear a 4 ft fence if they really wanted to. There are many possible ways to configure a coop, but here’s how to build a basic model that can easily be customized according to your aesthetic tastes. The only way to ensure you are doing everything you can to protect your backyard chicken flock is to have a properly secured area for them. If the slope is too small or too large, your roof won’t last very long, or it will need a lot more reinforcement. Elevating the nesting area's floor 2 to 3 feet off the ground keeps the flock's feet dry during wet weather. The floor of the coop will prevent snakes and other animals from gaining access. Jul 7, 2019 - Explore Audra Reed's board "Rubbermaid shed to chicken coop" on Pinterest. Works in the chicken coop, too, but I don't like to leave it down either place very long after it dries, because it gets dusty. theblondegardener.com. The center of the stems are hollow and contain air. Your chicken’s safety should always come first. If you feel you must build a flat roof on your coop, you will need to properly reinforce it underneath with several rafters. 7. The metal roofing sheets need to be installed plumb, straight and square to the eave of the coop roof. The deep litter method involves simply piling up a lot of bedding in the chicken coop. Check to see that there is an overhang at both the front and back of the coop. Let’s say you want your roof to overhang your coop on each side by 8 inches as illustrated below. This means your roof size is 4.22 ft by 8 ft. (Remember, the coop is 4 ft by 8 ft—this is where the 8 comes from.). 36. The other half should be secure, so covered with a mesh or metal cage bars, but letting sunlight in. Most commonly found in bathrooms and yoga studios, these panels are easy to use: Mount them on a wall or ceiling, plug them in and wipe them down every so often. Having a roof on your chicken run is one of the best ways of protecting them. If you want an 8 inch roof overhang on each side of the coop, your final roof size will be 5.55 feet by 9.33 feet. Although I have not lived with this remodel long enough to declare it a winner, initial impressions are all positive. Chicken Coop Roof Material – Which Types Are Best And Why ... A chicken coop roof needs to have a minimum pitch of 3:12 or 14° in most climates. Check out the table below: For most climates, the minimum pitch you’ll want for your chicken coop is 3:12. Richard Boles. 3. Each chicken needs about 6-10 inches of roosting space and the nesting box should be about 1 square foot. Straw is a natural form of insulation. Inside of the coop, hang a thick stick or a piece of wood to give the chickens a roosting area, and add a nesting box filled with straw for every 4-5 laying hens. In order to combat this, you need to have adequate ventilation. You’ll need much more roofing material. If your coop doesn’t come with a run, you’ll need to build one or place your coop inside a fenced-in area. The easiest way is to insulate the chicken coop as best you can. Reasons Why You Should Cover Your Chicken Run, Don’t Forget to Make a Space for a Dust Bath. The coop will be a place where the chickens have a sense of security and will roost every night. Backyard chickens can save you money, provide you with healthy eggs from a known source, and even serve as pets or companions! You know the roof run is 4 ft because your coop is 4’x8’. These aren’t permanent like the roofing I’ve already mentioned, but it’s really easy to just pull it over part of the roof when needed. Netting can also help to deter but it is not always failproof. It’s better than metal because it doesn’t rust or rot over time, is more flexible and easier to work with, and you can get a shade that lets some light through while blocking harmful U.V. How To Predator Proof Your Chicken Coop There are myriads of animals that think chickens make a nice snack, but the most common ones in a city setting are going to be raccoons, rodents, and dogs. When cleaning your chicken coop, it is also a good time to check on the health of your birds. You may also have the problem of your chickens wanting to roost on the roof at night, rather than going into the chicken coop. If you build your roof at a very steep angle, your chicken coop will be incredibly tall. Any kind of real roofing will work fine in a chicken coop: asphalt shingles, cedar shakes, roll roofing, built-up roofing, etc. Chicken wire is for keeping chickens in. The ratio is spoken as “x-in-12” pitch or just an “x pitch.”. If you have the money, you can use foam or fiberglass insulation in the walls of the coop then cover them with plywood. Make sure you have a good flow of air through your coop. Apr 12, 2016 - Chicken coops made in the USA only at www.greengardenchicken.com. The walls and roof are made double, with a small cavity between the inner and outer parts of the structures. Plus, chicken wire is going to rust to pieces in about 6 years. That’s right, not water, but dirt. Illnesses occur in chickens from time to time. This is a “3-in-12 pitch” or a “3 pitch.” This means that for every 12 units of roof run, the roof has increased 3 units in height. To make a simple roof, join two 40 inch (101.6 cm) by 84 inch (213.4 cm) pieces of plywood with some inexpensive hinges. Nesting space Look for a chicken coop with space for roosting and nesting about 2 feet above ground level. We’re talking 8-12 inches deep! Treehouse Chicken Coop. That’s why I put this video together—to answer all those questions for you in one spot! Mice can squeeze through an opening the size of a person’s little finger. The area they create a dust bath in needs to be dry. In this article, you will learn: For the floor and ceiling of the chicken coop I used a combination of 1/2″ sheathing, 1″ foam board insulation, and 3/4″ AdvanTech sheathing (stiffer and more stable, waterproof). Directly contradicting Terry Golson, The Chicken Chick is adamant that sand does not retain moisture. Backyard chicken coop plans can range from small to large, a-frame to barn designs and many more variations. You'll want to provide a thick layer of straw on the floor of the coop. And if you’re interested in simply purchasing a high-quality prebuilt coop, I highly recommend Rita Marie’s Chicken Coops. Other coops this size with a house and scratching area have a sloped roof leading down over the ramp; the Monmouth is one rectangular box which gives the chickens … Divide that number by 12. There are quite a few animals that do this, and it’s actually an effective way of shaking off dirt and debris, external parasites like lice, and removing excess oil from their feathers. This way, when the cold north wind blows, it cannot as easily blast right into the coop, but it still allows that warm, moisture-laden air to escape. Before galvanized roofing became widely available, most coops seemed to have either fancy shingle roofs or lowly tar-paper roofs. The best way to waterproof a chicken coop is to use a waterproof sealant of some kind. A good mix would consist of 30% fine pumice or vermiculite, 30% larger pumice and 40% organic soil mix. Egg gathering is one of the best ways to get kids involved in chicken raising. 2. Step 1: Plan for Size and Location. See more ideas about Coop, Chicken coop, Rubbermaid shed. The top access to the chicken coop. For example, let’s say your chicken coop is 4 ft x 8 ft, and you want a roof with a pitch of 4:12. In this design, a ramp lets the chickens move freely between the coop and the run, while stacked double barn doors provide easy access to both spaces for cleaning. Replace the chicken wire in windows, screen doors and the run with hardware cloth. 6 Ways To Banish Rodents From Your Chicken Coop For Good. Raise The Level Of The Floor. But that’s OK, because the best plants for a green roof are sedums. When Do Rhode Island Red Chickens Start Laying Eggs? Plywood covered in a weatherproof material, such as metal, plastic, or shingles, is the best option for chicken coop roofing as it offers protection both from predators and the elements. The first thing I did was put in a small chicken coop with three hens, which is the perfect number for starting out. There are so many elements you need to plan for your first chicken coop. If you want to learn about them all in one easy place, check out my free video training, Chicken coops 101: design your chickens’ dream home. On the other hand, wood siding would suffice for the wall that will separate the nesting area and roosting area. This can be more difficult to build. For climates with heavy snow loads, a chicken coop roof needs to have a minimum pitch of 4:12 or 18.5°. 1. I hope to see more of your projects soon. The most common style and configuration is a traditional coop, with exterior nesting boxes and an open gable roof. Does a chicken run need a roof? Ways of Insulation Now here I would be sharing with you the 4 most conducive and effective ways in terms of the insulation of the chicken coop for extreme weather conditions. When fitting the first roof sheet make sure it is perfectly straight and square to the bottom edge of the chicken coop. Best Chicken Coop Roof Material? (If you want to grow a wider range of plants, you’ll need to allow for drainage, but that’s beyond the scope of this article.) Determine the length of roof for your sloping side. Typically the chicken coop design will allow for the entire roof to slide out of the way or for a portion of the roof to lift up. Predator Proof Design for All Seasons and Weather. If you’re interested in learning more about keeping backyard hens, my favorite resource is “Raising Happy, Healthy Chickens…Naturally” 37. Both to stop chickens getting out and predators getting in.eval(ez_write_tag([[580,400],'chickenandchicksinfo_com-medrectangle-3','ezslot_6',118,'0','0'])); If you’re planning on adding a new chicken run or modifying your existing run, here is everything you need to know about what makes a good run for your chickens: eval(ez_write_tag([[300,250],'chickenandchicksinfo_com-medrectangle-4','ezslot_7',105,'0','0']));As I touched on above, there are a few reasons why you should at least cover your run with some kind of material: To stop predators – You might have no known predators where you live, and that’s great. So, if you use this link and then buy a coop, I’ll get a small commission at no extra cost to you—a great way to support my site if you’ve found it useful. You’ll want to use thicker rafters and more rafters spaced more closely together. I attached the 2×2 rafters to the chicken coop to frame the roof. An afternoon putting chicken wire on everything, shingling our roof, attaching the run to the coop, and the final product looks like this. Not good for horses, chickens, or ME! The run is their outdoor space, but it needs to be enclosed for safety reasons.
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